The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities. It is designed to
combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft.

Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey "1989"

Role V/STOL military transport aircraft
National origin United States
Manufacturer Bell Helicopter
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight 19 March 1989
Introduction 13 June 2007
Status In service
Primary users United States Marine Corps / United States Air Force
United States Navy / Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
Produced 1988–present
Number built 400 as of 2020
Developed from Bell XV-15

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Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey
"1989"

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Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey "1989"

The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft.

The failure of Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis in 1980 underscored the requirement for a long-range, high-speed, vertical-takeoff aircraft for the United States Department of Defense (DoD). In response, the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. A partnership between Bell Helicopter and Boeing Helicopters was awarded a development contract in 1983 for the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft. The Bell Boeing team jointly produce the aircraft.[3] The V-22 first flew in 1989 and began flight testing and design alterations; the complexity and difficulties of being the first tiltrotor for military service led to many years of development.

Design

The Osprey is the world’s first production tiltrotor aircraft,[99] with one three-bladed proprotor, turboprop engine, and transmission nacelle mounted on each wingtip.[100] It is classified as a powered lift aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration.[101] For takeoff and landing, it typically operates as a helicopter with the nacelles vertical and rotors horizontal. Once airborne, the nacelles rotate forward 90° in as little as 12 seconds for horizontal flight, converting the V-22 to a more fuel-efficient, higher speed turboprop aircraft.[102] STOL rolling-takeoff and landing capability is achieved by having the nacelles tilted forward up to 45°.[103][104] Other orientations are possible.[105] Pilots describe the V-22 in airplane mode as comparable to the C-130 in feel and speed.[106] It has a ferry range of over 2,100 nmi. Its operational range is 1,100 nmi.[107]

Composite materials make up 43% of the airframe, and the proprotor blades also use composites.

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Japan Self-Defense Forces

In 2012, former Defense Minister Satoshi Morimoto ordered an investigation of the costs of V-22 operations. The V-22’s capabilities exceeded current Japan Self-Defense Forces helicopters in terms of range, speed and payload. The ministry anticipated deployments to the Nansei Islands and the Senkaku Islands, as well as in multinational cooperation with the U.S. In November 2014, the Japanese Ministry of Defense decided to procure 17 V-22s. The first V-22 for Japan was delivered in August 2017.[202]

In September 2018, the Japanese Ministry of Defense decided to delay the deployment of the first five MV-22Bs it had received amid opposition and ongoing negotiations in the Saga Prefecture, where the aircraft are to be based

Specifications

Crew: 3–4 (pilot, copilot and 1 or 2 flight engineers/crew
Capacity:
24 troops (seated), 32 troops (floor loaded), or
20,000 lb (9,070 kg) of internal cargo, or up to 15,000 lb (6,800 kg) of external cargo 
Length: 57 ft 4 in (17.48 m)
Wingspan: 45 ft 10 in (13.97 m)
Width: 84 ft 6.8 in (25.776 m) including rotors
Height: 22 ft 1 in (6.73 m) engine nacelles vertical
Empty weight: 31,818 lb (14,432 kg)
Operating weight, empty: 32,623 lb (14,798 kg)
Combat weight: 42,712 lb (19,374 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce T406-AD-400 turboprop/turboshaft engines, 6,150 hp (4,590 kW) each maximum at 15,000 rpm at sea level, 59 °F (15 °C)

Maximum speed: 275 kn (316 mph, 509 km/h) 305 kn (565 km/h; 351 mph) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
Stall speed: 110 kn (130 mph, 200 km/h) 
Range: 879 nmi (1,012 mi, 1,628 km)
Combat range: 390 nmi (450 mi, 720 km)
Ferry range: 2,230 nmi (2,570 mi, 4,130 km)
Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,600 m)
Maximum glide ratio: 4.5:1
Rate of climb: 2,320–4,000 ft/min (11.8–20.3 m/s) 

Aircrafttoaal encyclopedia

srael On 22 April 2013, an agreement was signed to sell six V-22 to the Israeli Air Force.[210] By the end of 2016, Israel had not ordered the V-22 and was instead interested in buying the C-47 Chinook helicopter or the CH-53K helicopter.[211] As of 2017, Israel had frozen its evaluation of the V-22, "with a senior defence source indicating that the tiltrotor is unable to perform some missions currently conducted using its Sikorsky CH-53 transport helicopters