Eurofighter
EF 2000 Typhoon "1994"

Role Multirole fighter, air superiority fighter
National origin Multi-national
Manufacturer Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH
First flight 27 March 1994
Introduction 4 August 2003
Status In service
Primary users Royal Air Force / German Air Force
Italian Air Force / Spanish Air Force
See Operators below for others
Produced 1994–present
Number built 571 as of October 2020
Developed from British Aerospace EAP

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Eurofighter
EF 2000 Typhoon "1994"

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Eurofighter
EF 2000 Typhoon "1994"

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a European twin-enginecanard delta wingmultirole fighter.[3][4] The Typhoon was designed originally as an air superiority fighter[5] and is manufactured by a consortium of AirbusBAE Systems and Leonardo that conducts the majority of the project through a joint holding companyEurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH. The NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency, representing the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain manages the project and is the prime customer.[6]

The aircraft’s development effectively began in 1983 with the Future European Fighter Aircraft programme, a multinational collaboration among the UK, Germany, France, Italy and Spain. Previously, Germany, Italy and the UK had jointly developed and deployed the Panavia Tornado combat aircraft and desired to collaborate on a new project, with additional participating EU nations.

Design

The UK had identified a requirement for a new fighter as early as 1971. The Air Staff Target (AST) 403 specification in 1972 led to the P.96 conventional “tailed” design presented in the late 1970s. While the design would have met the Air Staff’s requirements, the UK air industry had reservations, as it appeared to be very similar to the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, which was then well advanced in its development. The P.96 design had little potential for growth, and when it entered production, it would secure few exports in a market in which the Hornet would be well established.[8] However, the simultaneous West German requirement for a new fighter had led by 1979 to the development of the TKF-90 concept.[9][10] This was a cranked delta wing design with forward close-coupled-canard controls and artificial stability. Although the British Aerospace designers rejected some of its advanced features such as engine vectoring nozzles and vented trailing edge controls, a form of boundary layer control, they agreed with the overall configuration.

 Austria
 Germany
 Italy
  • Italian Air Force – 96 ordered, of which 96 have been delivered and 95 in operation as of June 2020
 Saudi Arabia
 Spain
  • Spanish Air Force – 73 ordered, all of which have been delivered by October 2020 with 70 in operation as of October 2020.[
 United Kingdom
Royal Air Force – 160 ordered, all of which had been delivered by September 2019.[218] As of 1 April 2020, the RAF had 139 aircraft with 101 in service.

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Eurofighter EF 2000 Typhoon "1994"

The Eurofighter is produced in single-seat and twin-seat variants. The twin-seat variant is not used operationally, but only for training, though it is combat capable. The aircraft has been manufactured in three major standards; seven Development Aircraft (DA), seven production standard Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA) for further system development[249] and a continuing number of Series Production Aircraft. The production aircraft are now operational with the partner nation’s air forces.

The Tranche 1 aircraft were produced from 2000 onwards. Aircraft capabilities are being increased incrementally, with each software upgrade resulting in a different standard, known as blocks.[250] With the introduction of the block 5 standard, the R2 retrofit programme began to bring all Tranche 1 aircraft to that standard.

Specifications

Crew: 1 or 2
Length: 15.96 m (52 ft 4 in)
Wingspan: 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in)
Height: 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in)
Empty weight: 11,000 kg (24,251 lb)
Gross weight: 16,000 kg (35,274 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 23,500 kg (51,809 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofan engines,

Maximum speed: 2,125 km/h (1,320 mph, 1,147 kn) / Mach 2.0[294] (2,125 km/h or 1,320 mph at 11,000 m altitude)
1,530 km/h (950 mph; 830 kn) / Mach 1.25 at sea level (1,530 km/h or 950 mph)[298]
Supercruise: Mach 1.5
Range: 2,900 km (1,800 mi, 1,600 nmi)
g limits: +9 / -3

Guns: 1 × 27 mm Mauser BK-27 revolver cannon with 150 rounds
Hardpoints: Total of 13: 8 × under-wing; and 5 × under-fuselage pylon stations; holding in excess of 9,000 kg (19,800 lb) of payload
Typical multi-role configuration for a Tranche 2-P1E would be 4 × AMRAAM, 2×ASRAAM/IRIS-T, 4 × EGBU-16/Paveway-IV, 2 × 1000-litre supersonic fuel tanks and a targeting pod 

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