Junkers Ju 87 Stuka
Sturzkampfflugzeug “little bomber,” "1935"

Role Dive bomber
National origin Nazi Germany
Manufacturer Junkers
First flight 17 September 1935
Introduction 1936
Retired 1945
Primary users Luftwaffe
Bulgarian Air Force / Regia Aeronautica
Royal Romanian Air Force
Number built 6,000

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Junkers Ju 87 Stuka
Sturzkampfflugzeug "1935"

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Junkers Ju 87 Stuka
Sturzkampfflugzeug "1935"

The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, “dive bomber“) was a German dive-bomber and ground-attack aircraft. Designed by Hermann Pohlmann, it first flew in 1935. The Ju 87 made its combat debut in 1937 with the Luftwaffe‘s Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 and served in Axis forces in World War II (1939-1945).

The aircraft is easily recognisable by its inverted gull wings and fixed spatted undercarriage. Upon the leading edges of its faired main gear legs were mounted the Jericho-Trompeten (Jericho trumpets [de]) – wailing sirens, which became a propaganda symbol of German air power and of the so-called Blitzkrieg victories of 1939–1942 – as well as providing Stuka pilots with audible feedback as to speed. The Stuka’s design included several innovations, including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both wings to ensure that the aircraft recovered from its attack dive even if the pilot blacked out from the high g-forces

Design

The Ju 87 was a single-engined all-metal cantilever monoplane. It had a fixed undercarriage and could carry a two-person crew. The main construction material was duralumin, and the external coverings were made of duralumin sheeting. Parts that were required to be of strong construction, such as the wing flaps, were made of Pantal (a German aluminium alloy containing titanium as a hardening element) and its components made of Elektron. Bolts and parts that were required to take heavy stress were made of steel.

The Ju 87 was fitted with detachable hatches and removable coverings to aid and ease maintenance and overhaul. The designers avoided welding parts wherever possible, preferring moulded and cast parts instead. Large airframe segments were interchangeable as a complete unit, which increased speed of repair.

 

The airframe was also subdivided into sections to allow transport by road or rail. The wings were of standard Junkers double-wing construction. This gave the Ju 87 considerable advantage on take-off; even at a shallow angle, large lift forces were created through the aerofoil, reducing take-off and landing runs

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Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Sturzkampfflugzeug "1935"

Ju 87 G-2, Werk Nr. 494083

 
Ju 87G-2 494083 displayed at RAF Chivenor in 1970 wearing inaccurate wing code W8-A, with “W8” belonging to a Me 321 cargo glider unit[185]

A later, ground-attack variant, this is displayed at the Royal Air Force Museum in London; it was captured by British forces at Eggebek, Schleswig-Holstein in May 1945. It is thought to have been built in 1943–1944 as a D-5 before being rebuilt as a G-2 variant, possibly by fitting G-2 outer wings to a D-5 airframe. 

Crew: 2

Length: 11.10 m (36 ft 5 in)

Wingspan: 13.805 m (45 ft 3.5 in)

Height: 4.01 m (13 ft 2 in)

Empty weight: 2,712 kg (5,980 lb) 
Empty equipped weight: 2,760 kg (6,090 lb)

Max takeoff weight: 4,336 kg (9,560 lb)

Powerplant: 1 × Junkers Jumo 211Da V-12 890 kW (1,200 hp

Maximum speed: 339.6 km/h (211.0 mph, 183.4 kn) at sea level

Cruise speed: 209 km/h (130 mph, 113 kn) at 4,572 m (15,000 ft)

Range: 595.5 km (370.0 mi, 321.5 nmi) with 500 kg (1,102 lb) bomb 

Rate of climb: 2.3 m/s (450 ft/min)

Time to altitude: 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in 2 minutes

Guns: 2× 7.92 mm (0.312 in) MG 17 machine gun forward, 1× 7.92 mm (0.312 in) MG 15 machine gun to rear

Bombs: 1× 250 kg (550 lb) bomb beneath the fuselage and 4× 50 kg (110 lb) under-wing.

Specifications

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A later, ground-attack variant, this is displayed at the Royal Air Force Museum in London; it was captured by British forces at Eggebek, Schleswig-Holstein in May 1945. It is thought to have been built in 1943–1944 as a D-5 before being rebuilt as a G-2 variant, possibly by fitting G-2 outer wings to a D-5 airframe.