Panavia Tornado GR.4 "1974"

Role Multirole aircraft, strike aircraft
National origin Italy, West Germany, United Kingdom
Manufacturer Panavia Aircraft GmbH
First flight 14 August 1974
Introduction 1979
Status In service
Primary users German Air Force / Italian Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force / Royal Air Force 
Produced 1979–1998
Number built 990:
745, Panavia Tornado IDS
194, Panavia / Tornado ADV / 51, Panavia Tornado ECR
Variants Panavia Tornado ADV

Lockheed Aircraft

The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is an American family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole combat aircraft that is intended to perform both air superiority and strike missions

Goto Lockheed Aircraft

Lockheed F-35B Lightning II

The aircraft descends from the Lockheed Martin X-35, which in 2001 beat the Boeing X-32 to win the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. Its development is principally funded by the United States, with additional funding from program partner countries from NATO and close U.S. allies, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Italy, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and formerly Turkey.[5][6][7] Several other countries have ordered, or are considering ordering, the aircraft. The program has drawn much scrutiny and criticism for its unprecedented size, complexity, ballooning costs, and much-delayed deliveries, with numerous technical flaws still being corrected.[N 1] The acquisition strategy of concurrent production of the aircraft while it was still in development and testing led to expensive design changes and retrofits.[9][10]


The F-16 is a single-engine, highly maneuverable, supersonic, multi-role tactical fighter aircraft. It is much smaller and lighter than its predecessors, but uses advanced aerodynamics and avionics, including the first use of a relaxed static stability/fly-by-wire (RSS/FBW) flight control system, to achieve enhanced maneuver performance. Highly agile, the F-16 was the first fighter aircraft purpose-built to pull 9-g maneuvers and can reach a maximum speed of over Mach 2. Innovations include a frameless bubble canopy for better visibility, a side-mounted control stick, and a reclined seat to reduce g-force effects on the pilot. It is armed with an internal M61 Vulcan cannon in the left wing root and has multiple locations for mounting various missiles, bombs and pods. It has a thrust-to-weight ratio greater than one, providing power to climb and vertical acceleration

  • Luftwaffe: 210 IDS and 35 ECR Tornados delivered. By December 2018, 94 IDS and 28 ECR aircraft remained in service.
  • Marineflieger: 112 IDS Tornados delivered, retired in June 2005 with some aircraft being reallocated to the Luftwaffe.
  • Aeronautica Militare: 100 IDS A-200 Tornados delivered (18 converted to ECR EA-200s), 24 ADV F3 aircraft later leased from the RAF between 1995 and 2004. By December 2018, 70 A-200 and 5 EA-200 aircraft remained in service.
 Saudi Arabia
  • Royal Saudi Air Force: 96 IDS and 24 ADV Tornados delivered, ADVs retired in 2006. By December 2018, 81 IDS aircraft remained in service.

Former operator

 United Kingdom
  • Royal Air Force: 385 IDS GR1 and ADV F2/F3 Tornados delivered, including 230 GR1s (142 later upgraded to GR4s), 18 F2s and 147 F3s (retired in 2011). GR4 was retired on 1 April 2019
Lockheed Transport


RoleStealth multirole fighter
National originUnited States
ManufacturerLockheed Martin
First flight15 December 2006; 14 years ago (F-35A)
IntroductionF-35B: 31 July 2015 (USMC)[1]
F-35A: 2 August 2016 (USAF)[2]
F-35C: 28 February 2019 (USN)[3]
StatusIn service
Primary usersUnited States Air Force
United States Marine Corps
United States Navy
Royal Air Force
See Operators section for others
Number built625+ as of April 1, 2021[4]
Developed fromLockheed Martin X-35



 South Korea
 United Arab Emirates
 United Kingdom
  • Royal Air Force and Royal Navy (joint operation) – 21 F-35Bs received, with 18 in the UK and the rest in the US, where they are used for testing and training.[359] 42 (24 FOC fighters and 18 training aircraft) to be fast-tracked by 2023;[360][361] 60 to 80 total F-35Bs planned[362]
 United States

Specifications (F-35B) Data from The Great Book of Modern Warplanes,

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 51.4 ft (15.7 m)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft (11 m)
  • Height: 14.4 ft (4.4 m)
  • Wing area: 460 sq ft (43 m2)
  • Aspect ratio: 2.66
  • Empty weight: 29,300 lb (13,290 kg)
  • Gross weight: 49,540 lb (22,471 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 70,000 lb (31,751 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 18,250 lb (8,278 kg) internal
  • Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney F135-PW-100 afterburning turbofan, 28,000 lbf (120 kN) thrust dry, 43,000 lbf (190 kN) with afterburner

Specifications (F-35B)



  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.6 at altitude
  • Range: 1,500 nmi (1,700 mi, 2,800 km)
  • Combat range: 669 nmi (770 mi, 1,239 km) on internal fuel
    • 760 nmi (870 mi; 1,410 km) interdiction mission on internal fuel, for internal air to air configuration[390]
  • Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m)
  • g limits: +9.0
  • Wing loading: 107.7 lb/sq ft (526 kg/m2) at gross weight
  • Thrust/weight: 0.87 at gross weight (1.07 at loaded weight with 50% internal fuel)


  • Armament

    • Guns: 1 × 25 mm (0.984 in) GAU-22/A 4-barrel rotary cannon, 180 rounds[N 16]
    • Hardpoints: 4 × internal stations, 6 × external stations on wings with a capacity of 5,700 pounds (2,600 kg) internal, 15,000 pounds (6,800 kg) external, 18,000 pounds (8,200 kg) total weapons payload,with provisions to carry combinations of:
      • Missiles:Air-to-air missiles:AIM-120 AMRAAMAIM-9X SidewinderAIM-132 ASRAAMMBDA Meteor (Block 4

Aircrafttoaal encyclopedia

An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.