The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American tri-jet wide-body airliner manufactured by American McDonnell Douglas (MDD) and later by Boeing. Following DC-10 development studies, the MD-11 program was launched on December 30, 1986. Assembly of the first prototype began on March 9, 1988. It rolled out in September 1989 and made its maiden flight on January 10, 1990. FAA certification was achieved on November 8. The first delivery was to Finnair on December 7, 1990, and it entered service on December 20.
It retains the basic trijet configuration of the DC-10 with updated GE CF6-80C2 or PW4000 turbofan engines. It has a slightly wider wing with winglets, and its MTOW was increased by 14% to 630,500 lb (286 t). Its fuselage is stretched by 11% to 202 ft (61.6 m) to accommodate 298 passengers in three classes over a range of up to 7,130 nmi (13,200 km). It features a glass cockpit that eliminates the need for a flight engineer. The MD-11 failed to meet its range and fuel burn targets. The last of 200 aircraft was built in October 2000 after Boeing merged with MDC in 1997. Some MD-11s freighters were built, but many more are converted MD-11 passenger aircraft, many of which are still in service with cargo airlines.
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||August 29, 1970|
|Introduction||August 5, 1971 with American Airlines|
|Status||In cargo service|
|Developed into||McDonnell Douglas MD-11|
As of July 2019, the worldwide fleet of MD-11s totals 118 aircraft in commercial service with cargo operators FedEx Express (55), UPS Airlines (37), Lufthansa Cargo (12), Western Global Airlines (11) and other operators with fewer aircraft.
Most of the airlines who ordered the MD-11 for their long-haul passenger flights had replaced it with Airbus A330, A340, and Boeing 777 aircraft by the end of 2004. Some carriers converted their MD-11s to freighters such as China Eastern Airlines and Korean Air. Korean Air announced as early as December 1994 its intention to convert its five passenger MD-11s to freighters for medium-range cargo routes. In 1995, American Airlines agreed to sell its 19 aircraft to FedEx, with the first MD-11 being transferred in 1996. Japan Airlines (JAL) announced the replacement of its 10 MD-11s in 2000; these aircraft were being converted into freighters and sold to UPS in 2004.[
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.