The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd.
World War One
World War Two
AVRO LAncaster / Gloster Meteor / Gloster Gladiator Gloster E.28 Hawker Sea fury / Hawker Hart / Hawker Hind / Hawker Hurricane /
Supermarine Attacker F.1 / Supermarine Scimitar / Supermarine Spitfire / Supermarine Seafire /
General Aviation / Trainer&transport / Millitary aircraft / World War 2 aircraft
The Hawker Hurricane is a low-wing cantilever monoplane outfitted with retractable undercarriage and an enclosed cockpit for the pilot. A clean, single-seat fighter, it was developed to provide a competent combatant for aerial combat against the latest fighter designs that were emerging amongst the air services of other powers of the era. The Hurricane was initially armed with an arrangement of eight remotely-operated wing-mounted Browning machine guns, intended for conducting rapid engagements. The Hurricane was typically equipped for flying under both day and night conditions, being provided with navigation lights, Harley landing lights, complete blind-flying equipment, and two-way radios. Upon its entry to service, much of the performance data was intentionally concealed from the general public, but it was known that the type possessed a speed range of 6:1.
Though faster and more advanced than the RAF's current front line biplane fighters, the design of the Hurricane's construction was already considered to be somewhat outdated when introduced to service and resembled those used on the earlier biplanes. Hawker had decided to employ its traditional construction techniques instead of radical measures such as the adoption of a stressed-skin metal exterior. The primary structure comprised a Warren truss box-girder that made use of high-tensile steel longerons and duralumin cross-bracing, which were mechanically fastened instead of welded.
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Due to its lightweight, yet robust, construction and ease of maintenance, the Hurricane had a long operational life in many theatres of war. It was also built by, or exported to, several other countries. The Hurricane was unusual in that it was flown operationally by both the Allies and the Axis during the war. In some cases (e.g. Portugal and Ireland) the Hurricane was pressed into service after being forced to land in a neutral country.
National origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer Hawker Aircraft
Designer Sydney Camm
First flight 6 November 1935
First flight 6 November 1935
Introduction 25 December 1937
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Number built 14,583
Variants Hawker Hurricane variants
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Hurricane Mk IIA Series 1 equipped with new and slightly longer propeller spinner, and fully replaced the machine-gun armament with four 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano Mk II cannons, two per side. Hurricane IIA Series 2 became the Mk IIC in June 1941, using a slightly modified wing. The new wings also included a hardpoint for a 500 or 250 lb (230 or 110 kg) bomb and, later in 1941, fuel tanks. By then performance was inferior to the latest German fighters, and the Hurricane changed to the ground-attack role, sometimes referred to as the Hurribomber.
The Hurricane had its first combat action on 21 October 1939, at the start of the Phoney War. That day, “A” Flight of 46 Squadron took off from North Coates satellite airfield, on the Lincolnshire coast, and was directed to intercept a formation of nine Heinkel He 115B floatplanes from 1/K