Curtiss Aircraft

Wright Kitty Hawk Flyer

Wright Flyer I903

Fighter Aircraft

Curtiss Aircraft

The Wright Flyer (the Kitty Hawk, often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I or 1903 Flyer) was the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft.

Wright 1903 Flyer

Design and development

The Flyer was based on the Wrights’ experience testing gliders at Kitty Hawk between 1900 and 1902. Their last glider, the 1902 Glider, led directly to the design of the Flyer.

The Wrights built the aircraft in 1903 using giant spruce wood as their construction material. The wings were designed with a 1-in-20 camber. Since they could not find a suitable automobile engine for the task, they commissioned their employee Charlie Taylor to build a new design from scratch, effectively a crude gasoline engine. A sprocket chain drive, borrowing from bicycle technology, powered the twin propellers, which were also made by hand.

 

Design

The Flyer was a bicanard biplane configuration. As with the gliders, the pilot flew lying on his stomach on the lower wing with his head toward the front of the craft in an effort to reduce drag. He steered by moving a cradle attached to his hips. The cradle pulled wires which warped the wings and turned the rudder simultaneously.

 

RoleExperimental airplane
National originUnited States
DesignerOrville and Wilbur Wright
First flightDecember 17, 1903[1]
Number built1
Developed fromWright Glider
Developed intoWright Flyer II
Wright Flyer III
Other name(s)Kitty Hawk, Flyer I, 1903 Flyer
TypeExperimental canard biplane
ManufacturerWright Cycle Company
Manufactured1903
Owners and operatorsWright Brothers
Last flightDecember 17, 1903
Flights4
StatusOn display in the National Air & Space Museum[2]
Preserved atThe Smithsonian[2]

Development

As the 100th anniversary on December 17, 2003, approached, the U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission along with other organizations opened bids for companies to recreate the original flight. The Wright Experience, led by Ken Hyde, won the bid and painstakingly recreated reproductions of the original Wright Flyer, plus many of the prototype gliders and kites as well as several subsequent Wright aircraft. The completed Flyer reproduction was brought to Kitty Hawk and pilot Kevin Kochersberger attempted to recreate the original flight at 10:35 am December 17, 2003, on level ground near the bottom of Kill Devil Hill.[30] Although the aircraft had previously made several successful test flights, sour weather, rain, and weak winds prevented a successful flight on the actual anniversary date. Hyde’s reproduction is displayed at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 21 ft 1 in (6.43 m)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft 4 in (12.29 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m)
  • Wing area: 510 sq ft (47 m2)
  • Empty weight: 605 lb (274 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 745 lb (338 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × straight-4 water-cooled piston engine, 4 inches (102 mm) bore by 4 inches (102 mm) stroke.[3] , 12 hp (8.9 kW) 170 lbs (77.11 kg), (2 x Wright “Elliptical” props, 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m), port prop carved to counter-rotate left, starboard prop carved to rotate to the right)

Specifications (Flyer 1903)

Performance

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 21 ft 1 in (6.43 m)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft 4 in (12.29 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m)
  • Wing area: 510 sq ft (47 m2)
  • Empty weight: 605 lb (274 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 745 lb (338 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × straight-4 water-cooled piston engine, 4 inches (102 mm) bore by 4 inches (102 mm) stroke.[3] , 12 hp (8.9 kW) 170 lbs (77.11 kg), (2 x Wright “Elliptical” props, 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m), port prop carved to counter-rotate left, starboard prop carved to rotate to the right)

Avionics

  • Performance

    • Maximum speed: 30 mph (48 km/h, 26 kn)
    • Service ceiling: 30 ft (9.1 m)
    • Wing loading: 1.4 lb/sq ft (6.4 kg/m2)
    • Power/mass: 0.02 hp/lb (15 W/kg)

Aircrafttoaal encyclopedia

The JSC Sukhoi Company (Russian: ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, and designs both civilian and military aircraft. It was founded by Pavel Sukhoi in 1939 as the Sukhoi Design Bureau (OKB-51, design office prefix Su). The Russian government merged Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.